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Calculating a Cost of Community Services Ratio for Your Pennsylvania Community

1998
Organizations/Sources: Penn State University
This is a good starting point for any municipality in Pennsylvania that wants to perform a COCS study. Provides a step-by-step approach on preparing for, conducting the study, and interpreting your results.
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Jun 24, 2019
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Community Guide to Development Impact Analysis

2000
Authors: Mary Edwards
Organizations/Sources: University of Wisconsin-Madison
An excellent first step in understanding a COCS study and how they can help shape your community. Defines the steps of conducting your own COCS, including linked worksheets and in-depth examples.
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Aug 11, 2015
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Cost of Community Services Studies: Making the Case for Conservation

Organizations/Sources: Pennsylvania Land Trust Association
Saving land saves money. More than 80 Cost of Community Services (COCS) studies conducted nationwide by the American Farmland Trust and others show that privately owned farm, forest and ranch lands generate more in local revenues than they require in services.
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Feb 14, 2017
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Costs & Revenues of Residential Development: A Workbook for Local Officials and Citizens

2000
Organizations/Sources: Penn State University
This Workbook for Citizens & Officials, developed by specialists at Penn State's Cooperative Extension, is intended to assist those conducting economic analysis of specific proposed residential development in communities, using the Per Capita Multiplier method of analysis to predict the impacts on school districts and township or borough governments. A version of the workbook is available for use on-line, which is quick and easy, though does not have the same flexibility as the paper version of the workbook.
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Jun 24, 2019
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Saving Land Saves Money

Organizations/Sources: Montgomery County Lands Trust
Although the primary reason to protect important parts of the community is to ensure a high quality of life, saving land saves money for taxpayers. Land preservation is an investment in your community’s future—providing both financial and quality of life dividends. This guide explains how to conduct cost of community services studies and includes examples from Pennsylvania municipalities.
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Jun 24, 2019
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Where Do We Grow From Here? Lesson 9: The Cost of Community Services

2001
This is one of a series of lesson plans taken from the State of Maryland’s Teacher’s Resource Guide on Growth and Its Impacts. Teachers can use the plan to illustrate how the costs of a community are impacted by different land uses.
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Aug 11, 2015
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