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Andrew M. Loza

Contact Information

Andrew M. Loza
Pennsylvania Land Trust Association
119 Pine Street
Harrisburg, PA
Aloza dc

Services Provided

All kinds of stuff

Unclassified Guided Organizational Assessment / Accreditation


Loza has served since 2000 as executive director of the Pennsylvania Land Trust Association where he leads public policy initiatives, writes and edits technical guidance, and implements various assistance, training, and education programs to advance conservation. Previously he served as a land trust executive director; led conservation, planning, trail and development initiatives for county government; and consulted on environmental policy. He holds degrees from the University of Pittsburgh and Lehigh University.

Paul Doerwald

Guide Listings

Guide to Pennsylvania's Recreational Use of Land and Water Act
Loza co-authored this guide.

Why Preserve Farmland?
Loza started Allegheny County's farmland preservation program and has been engaged in farmland preservation issues for many years.

What Is a Land Trust?
Loza authored this guide.

Land Trust Standards and Practices
Loza has assisted land trusts dozens of land trusts in understanding and implementing Standards and Practices. He also served on the Standards Advisory Team for the 2017 revision.

Conservation Easements
Loza authored this guide and many related materials.

Overview of Pennsylvania’s Recreational Use of Land and Water Act
Loza coauthored this guide.

Pre-Existing Mortgages in Easement Transactions
Loza co-authored this guide.

Realty Transfer Tax
Loza is a contributing author to this guide.

Farm Preservation Options for Landowners
Loza started Allegheny County's farmland preservation program and has been engaged in farmland preservation issues for many years.

Adding to Land Under Conservation Easement
Guide co-author.

Model Conservation Easement
Loza co-authored the Model Grant of Conservation Easement and Declaration of Covenants with Commentary.

Model Documents
Loza is an author, coauthor, or editor of most of PALTA’s model documents.

Riparian Buffer Protection Agreement
Loza managed PALTA’s riparian buffer protection agreement project.

Guide to the Conservation and Preservation Easements Act
Loza worked to achieve passage of the act and authored this guide.

Purchase Options
Loza is a coauthor of this guide.

Stewardship Funding Arrangements
Loza co-authored this guide.

Pennsylvania Local Governments May Support Land Trusts
Loza authored this guide and assisted with the development of what became Act 154 of 2006.

Public Dedication of Land and Fees-in-Lieu for Parks and Recreation
Loza coauthored the guide Public Dedication of Land and Fees-in-Lieu for Parks and Recreation.

Property Tax Exemption for Preserves, Parks, Trails, and Other Conserved Lands
Loza is a contributing author and editor of this guide.

Library Items Authored

Guide and Model Policy for Conservation Easement Amendment
Conservation easements are intended to last—to ensure protection of important resources, no matter people’s whims—through the decades and centuries. However, the world changes and so do understandi...

Stewardship Funding Arrangements: Options for Financing the Obligations of Conservation Easement Holders
(print edition of guide) A landowner may agree to one or more funding arrangements that require the landowner or successive owners of an eased property to make one or more pa...

Public Dedication of Land and Fees-in-Lieu for Parks and Recreation: A Tool for Meeting Recreational Demands in Pennsylvania Municipalities
Municipalities may require developers to provide parkland for new developments. They may also offer developers the option to instead pay fees, construct facilities or establish private parkland. Th...

Amending and Restating Grants of Conservation Easement: Best Practices to Document Change
If a land trust intends to amend a grant of conservation easement, implementation of the changes requires careful planning and drafting. The consequences of a poor execution range from missed oppor...

Gift of a Future Interest in Real Estate: Reserved Life Estates Keep Owners in Control During Their Lifetimes
Landowners can convey a future interest in real property to a conservation organization or government but continue to live on or otherwise enjoy using the property during their lifetimes. If the p...

Rights of First Purchase (Offer, Negotiation and Refusal)
A right of first purchase gives a potential purchaser the opportunity to purchase before a property is sold to another. It can be a right of first offer, a right of first negotiation, a right of fi...

Riparian Buffer Protection Agreement
A riparian buffer protection agreement limits activities on all or a portion of a property to advance conservation purposes while keeping the property in the control of the landowner.

Bridge Loans for Conservation Purchases: Borrowing from Revolving Loan Funds
Low and no interest, short-term loans are available to help nonprofit organizations complete land and easement purchases for conservation purposes.

Commission-Based Compensation Fundraising
Commission-based compensation for fundraising by staff and consultants, although legal, is widely viewed as a bad practice for nonprofits.

Economic Benefits of Biodiversity
Economic impact studies document the many and substantial economic benefits generated by biodiversity. This guide identifies major studies, summarizes key findings of each and provides hyperlinks t...

Economic Benefits of Parks
(print edition of guide) Economic impact studies document the many and substantial economic benefits generated by parks. This guide identifies major studies, summarizes key f...

Economic Benefits of Smart Growth and Costs of Sprawl
Sprawling patterns of development create heavy economic burdens -- problems, costs and liabilities far in excess of the benefits. Conversely, smart growth strategies can enhance economic vitality.

Economic Benefits of Trails
(print edition of guide) Economic impact studies document the many and substantial economic benefits generated by trails. This guide identifies major studies, summarizes key ...

Street and Sidewalk Design
Good street and sidewalk design improves public safety, accommodates a variety of users, reduces environmental impacts, and enhances community character. (Print version of guide)

Conservation Easements in Court: A Review of Easement Violation and Enforcement Litigation in Pennsylvania
A review of Pennsylvania judicial decisions reveals that conservation easement holders and the conservation values they uphold prevail when a dispute leads to litigation. Courts respect the text of...

Local Regulation for Historic Preservation
Local municipal regulations can provide substantial protection to historic resources, preserving their contributions to cultural vitality and helping communities maintain quality of life.

Model Conservation Easement
(print edition of guide) The Model Grant of Conservation Easement and Declaration of Covenants with Commentary provides users with a state-of-the-art legal document and guidan...

Conservation Easements: An Introduction for Private Landowners
A conservation easement limits certain uses of the land in order to advance one or more conservation objectives while keeping the land in the owner’s control. It is established by mutual agreement ...

Model Documents
The Pennsylvania Land Trust Association develops and maintains model documents to help users complete projects and manage their operations efficiently and effectively. This guide briefly describes ...

Guide to Pennsylvania's Recreational Use of Land and Water Act: A Law Limiting the Liability of Those Who Open Their Land to the Public
The Recreational Use of Land and Water Act limits the liability of property owners who open their land to the public for recreation. This guide describes the immunity provided to owners in regards ...

Reversionary Interest
A landowner who is concerned about the future use of his land can donate or sell the land on a conditional rather than absolute basis. A reversionary interest is created by a deed that reserves to ...

Environmental Advisory Council: A Versatile Arm for Pennsylvania Local Government
Any municipality in Pennsylvania may establish an environmental advisory council to tap the skills and volunteer energy of its citizens. Consisting of three to seven members appointed by the local...

Restricted Gifts: Issues to Consider Before Making or Taking a Gift for a Specific Purpose
A restricted gift of cash, land, easement or other property may only be used for a particular purpose rather than an organization’s general purposes. Both donor and donee need to be aware of the is...

Property Tax Exemption for Preserves, Parks, Trails, and Other Conserved Lands
Preserves, parks, trails, and other conserved lands in Pennsylvania are not automatically exempted from real estate taxes. If tax exemption is desired for a parcel, the charitable organization or ...

Indemnity Agreements and Liability Insurance: Protection From Claims Brought by Third Parties
An individual or organization’s risk of being held liable for personal injury or property damage may be shifted to another party who agrees to accept the risk and who holds liability insurance or s...

Model Fishing Access Agreement and Commentary
The hybrid easement document provides for both resource protection and public access for fishing. It is a tool for conservation organizations and governmental entities to build cooperative relation...

Riparian Buffer Protection via Local Regulation: A Guide and Model Ordinance for Pennsylvania Municipalities
Riparian buffers - forested or otherwise vegetated lands bordering water bodies - deliver tremendous water quality and other public benefits. Pennsylvania municipalities may ensure the protection ...

Donation of Stock and Other Securities
For both donors and donees, the donation of stock and other marketable securities can be more advantageous than a cash donation.

Amending Grants of Conservation Easement: Legal Considerations for Land Trusts
This guide informs easement holders of legal matters to consider under Pennsylvania law and the Internal Revenue Code when making decisions regarding the amendment of grants of conservation easement.

The Nature of the Conservation Easement and the Document Granting It
By statute and by common law interpretation, a conservation easement is a real estate interest and is governed by real estate law, in particular, the law of servitudes. This guide analyzes the nat...

Not a Public Trust: The Land Trust-Held Conservation Easement in Pennsylvania
No legal precedent exists in Pennsylvania for finding that a conservation easement acquired by a private land trust is a public trust.

Nature Play: Nurturing Children and Strengthening Conservation through Connections to the Land
Unstructured, frequent childhood play in informal outdoor settings powerfully boosts the cognitive, creative, physical, social and emotional development of children. It also engenders deep conserva...

Trail Easements
A landowner may convey to another person the rights to create a trail, open it for public use and maintain it without the owner giving up ownership and enjoyment of the land through which the trail...

Model Grant of Right of First Offer
The holder of a right of first offer has the opportunity to purchase land at the landowners’ asking price before other prospective purchasers have an opportunity. An alternative configuration has t...

Model Grant of Right of First Refusal
If an owner intends to accept an offer for the purchase of his or her land, the holder of a right of first refusal has the opportunity to purchase the land at the price and terms offered by the pro...

Installment Agreement
An installment agreement requires the buyer of real estate to pay the seller the purchase price in installments over time; the buyer takes immediate possession of the property but the seller retain...

Not a Charitable Trust: The Donated Conservation Easement in Pennsylvania
(print edition of the guide) Little evidence exists to support the proposition that a donated conservation easement, in the absence of a charitable trust agreement (not to be...

Pennsylvania Local Governments May Support Land Trusts
In Pennsylvania, local governments may give money, land and easements to land trusts.

Introduction to Land Trusts and Their Work
Land trusts are charitable organizations that work cooperatively with landowners to conserve land in the public interest. Click on the heading to read a short essay on land trusts and their work.

Starting a Land Trust
Click for information on starting a land trust to work to identify and tap the energies and resources of all who are sympathetic to your conservation concerns.

What Is a Land Trust?
Simply stated, a land trust is a charitable organization that acquires land or conservation easements, or that stewards land or easements, for conservation purposes. However, this simple definition...

Model Release of Liability Form
The risk of being held responsible for injuries or property damage associated with organizing volunteer, educational, recreational, and other events and activities (or opening up property for the s...

Purchase and Sale Agreements for Conservation Projects: Guidance and Sample Provisions
Acquisitions of land and easements for conservation purposes can involve issues different from other real estate transactions. This guide looks at purchase and sale agreements in general and then r...

National Poll Results: How Americans View Conservation
Across the political spectrum, voters in the United Sates consistently demonstrate support for conservation. (Print version of CT Guide)

Amending Conservation Easements
Powerpoint presentation providing overview of easement amendments and guiding principles.

Model Trail Easement Agreement with Commentary
This widely used model is coupled with an expansive commentary that explains the reasoning behind every provision, instructs on applying the model to particular circumstances, and provides alternat...

Model Grant of Conservation Easement and Declaration of Covenants, 7th edition
The Model Grant of Conservation Easement and Declaration of Covenants provides users with a state-of-the-art legal document together with an expansive commentary. Built on practitioner experiences ...

Growing Greener, Melding Conservation and Development
A case study on Conservation by Design. The studies provide the perspective of both the land owner and the developer in creating open-space friendly developments.

Local Land Use Planning and Controls in Pennsylvania
This guide describes the basic elements of land use planning and regulation available to municipal and county governments under the Pennsylvania Municipalities Planning Code. (Print version of Cons...

Solar Energy Development and Land Conservation
An enormous boost in solar energy production is one of the actions needed to stop the dramatic rise of carbon in the atmosphere and better ensure civilization’s long-term prospects. This guide expl...

Model Grant of Access Easement for Environmental Stewardship with Commentary, 2nd edition
This model legal document is used to ensure the easement holder's continued access to a property to undertake AMD remediation or other environmental restoration and stewardship projects. Be sure to...

Pre-Existing Mortgages in Easement Transactions: Using Non-Disturbance and Subordination Agreements to Prevent Extinguishment and Comply with Tax Law
When a mortgage predates an easement on a property, the easement could be extinguished in a foreclosure if the owners default on their mortgage payments. And if the easement is to be donated and th...

Model Stewardship Funding Covenant with Commentary
Used to secure payment of deferred contributions and other conservation commitments made by present landowners and to be paid by either them or future owners. The model offers ten basic ways to str...

Donation Agreements
A donation agreement may be used to ensure that a donor’s promise can be relied upon, set the expectations of both donor and donee, and prevent misunderstandings.

Guide to the Conservation and Preservation Easements Act: Pennsylvania Act 29 of 2001
Conservation organizations can avoid many potential difficulties in conservation easement stewardship by ensuring that their conservation easement documents are drafted to conform with the Conserva...

Reducing Liability Associated with Public Access
Public access to property for recreational uses – such as hiking, bird watching, fishing and hunting – raises concern about the possibility of liability on account of injury to a recreational user...

Model Grant of Fishing and Boating Access Easement
Use to provide public access to or along a waterway for fishing, boating or other recreational and educational uses. This model legal instrument may be used as a stand-alone document or may be coup...

Model Consent, Non-Disturbance, and Subordination Agreement with Commentary, 2nd edition
When a mortgage precedes an easement on a property, the possibility that one day the mortgage could be foreclosed poses a threat to the continued existence of the easement unless the holder of the ...

Model Conservation Easement Donation Agreement with Commentary
The Model Conservation Easement Donation Agreement helps land trusts avoid getting stuck with unreimbursed major expenses if a would-be easement donor walks away from a project. It outlines the ste...

Model Grant of Conservation Easement and Declaration of Covenants for Riparian Buffer Protection
This model was crafted for the specific purpose of permanently protecting riparian buffers along waterways. The model is based on the 7th edition of the Model Grant of Conservation Easement and Dec...

Legal Considerations for Stewardship Funding Arrangements: Binding Present and Future Landowners to Present Promises
A landowner may agree to one or more funding arrangements that require the landowner or successor owners of an eased property to make one or more payments to the easement holder to support stewards...

Reducing Federal Estate Tax: A Conservation Easement Benefit for Large Estates
For large estates, death triggers the possibility of federal estate tax. A conservation easement on the deceased person’s land, whether granted in life, by will, or by the person’s heirs—can reduce...

Model Amendment of Grant of Conservation Easement and Declaration of Covenants
If changes to a conservation easement granting document are necessary or desirable, the easement holder must decide whether to amend and restate the document in full or to amend without restatement...

Adding to Land Under Conservation Easement
A landowner has land under conservation easement and is ready to conserve more of their nearby property. How best to carry this out?

Trapped in a Contract: Don't Get Burned by Evergreen and Automatic Renewal Clauses
Organizations should be wary of draconian renewal clauses that are sometimes embedded in seemingly innocuous contracts. If an organization enters into a contract containing such a clause, the organ...

Authorization of Real Estate Transactions: Rules and Process for Nonprofits
(print edition of guide) Within the bounds of state law and private standards of practice, a nonprofit organization has considerable flexibility in establishing policies and ...

Stewardship Funding Arrangements: sample brochure
The Pennsylvania Land Trust Association prepared this sample brochure to illustrate how a land trust might communicate with owners concerning the need and options to fund the land trust's easement ...

Your Loss Is Not My Benefit; Your Gain Is Not My Detriment: The Tenuous Link Between Value to Landowner and Value to Conservation in Easement Transactions
How does decrease or increase in market value of land resulting from establishing or amending an easement relate to the conservation easement’s value? What do we mean when we refer to “value”? This...

Closing: Finalizing the Real Estate Transaction
At closing, the transfer of the real estate interest, whether land or easement, is completed. This guide helps users organize and expedite the closing.

Options to Sell
An option to sell may be used to assure that a property acquisition can be undone if expectations are not met.

Purchase Options: Gaining the Right Without the Obligation to Acquire Property Interests
A purchase option is a right to purchase or lease land or other property interests without any obligation to do so.

Management of the Document Preparation Process
When a document needs to be reviewed, edited and approved by more than one person, good document management and control practices help prevent time-consuming missteps and confusion for all the part...

Model Grant of Purchase Option with Commentary
A purchase option assures the option holder of the right to purchase property at a certain price within a certain time period but without an obligation to do so. In granting an option, the landowne...

Who Has Standing? Conservation Easements in Pennsylvania Courts
Who can assert claims and be heard in Pennsylvania’s courts if a dispute heats up over the management of a conservation easement?

Holders, Beneficiaries and Backup Grantees: Defining Roles and Relationships to Achieve Conservation Easement Objectives
A conservation easement may have one or more holders responsible for upholding the easement’s conservation objectives. It may have a beneficiary, an entity with some rights to manage the easement i...

Release of Liability Form: A Tool to Reduce the Risk of Claims for Personal Injury or Property Loss
A properly designed release of liability form signed by a volunteer or participant in an activity can reduce liability risks of the organizing or hosting organization. (Print version of Conservatio...

Realty Transfer Tax: Exclusions for Conservation-Related Transactions in Pennsylvania
Many conservation-related property transactions are excluded from having to pay state and local realty transfer taxes in Pennsylvania.

Model Grant of Conservation Easement, 6th edition (archived--not for use)
A more recent version of this model, the "Model Grant of Conservation Easement and Declaration of Covenants, 7th edition," was published in 2016. The 6th edition is archived here for historical pu...

Why Preserve Farmland?
Farms feed us and provide a host of other public benefits. However, every day the amount of fertile farmland diminishes as development spreads. This guide describes the importance of preserving pr...

Donation by Will: Options and Issues Regarding Gifts of Cash, Land and Other Property
Donors who want to help a worthy charity but also need to ensure that they have sufficient assests to live comfortably until life's end may choose to make some gifts via their wills. (Print version...

Other Power-Driven Mobility Devices on Trails and Areas Open to Pedestrians: Creating and Implementing Policies for Accessibility and Compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act
Trails and other areas open to the public for pedestrian use must also be open to motor-ized vehicles used by persons with mobility disabilities. Any type of motorized vehicle must be allowed unles...

Farm Preservation Options for Landowners: Government and Private Approaches to Conservation Easements in Pennsylvania
Fifty-seven Pennsylvania counties have agricultural land preservation boards that purchase agricultural conservation easements. Sixty-five private charitable organizations accept donations of conse...

Cost of Community Services Studies
Cost of Community Services studies examine both the tax revenues generated by different land uses and the costs to local government of providing services to those same uses. They help people unders...

CommunityViz® software enables users to see what different land use and development scenarios would look like if they were to actually occur. It allows users to create hypothetical scenarios and as...

Land Trust Accreditation
The Land Trust Accreditation Commission offers outside verification that a land trust conforms with a key set of practices within Land Trust Standards and Practices. Accreditation is voluntary. A l...

Land Trust Standards and Practices: Guidelines for the Responsible Operation of a Land Trust
The Land Trust Standards and Practices are widely accepted ethical and technical guidelines for the responsible operation of a land trust. (print edition of guide)

Model Maintenance and Operation Agreement with Commentary
This model helps local governments and private sports leagues or other recreational groups establish partnerships for providing recreational facilities and programming on public lands. It helps the...

Development Threat Analysis
A development threat analysis identifies undeveloped lands that are most likely to be developed within a specific time frame. Information is presented in map form.

Model Stewardship Cost Calculator
Land trusts can use this tool to estimate the annual costs of stewardship for a conservation easement and the initial investment in a stewardship fund that will be needed to cover the costs. The ca...

How Pennsylvanians View Government Funding of Conservation: An Overview of Polling and Voting Results
An overwhelming majority of Pennsylvanians—regardless of party or region—value open space and state investments in conservation. (Print version of CT guide)

Model Declaration of Public Trust with Commentary
This set of model documents and accompanying commentary helps local governments to formally dedicate lands to public purposes and clarify what are and aren’t appropriate uses of the land. (The mate...

Model Grant of Trail Easement with Commentary: A Short Form Alternative to the Model Trail Easement Agreement
The Model Grant of Trail Easement is brief--one page (exclusive of signatures)--as compared to the Model Trail Easement Agreement. The shorter document is useful where brevity is the paramount conc...

Referendum to Authorize a Tax or Bond for Conservation
Pennsylvanians may vote to establish a tax specifically dedicated to open space protection in their municipality. Voters may also approve borrowing by their county or municipality for conservation ...

Endowments and More
Endowments and quasi-endowments help organizations establish long-term financial stability. This guide explains the basics; provides links to resources that address creating, managing, and fundrais...

Transfer of Development Rights
Transfer of Development Rights is a zoning technique that conserves land by redirecting development that would otherwise occur on the land (the sending area) to a receiving area suitable for denser...

Seller Take Back Financing
When a seller wants to close a sale of real estate but the buyer is not yet in a position to fully fund the purchase, the parties can close the sale with the seller taking from the buyer a purchase...

Encroachment: Permitting Continued Use Without Risking Loss of Ownership
What should you do if a neighboring landowner encroaches on your organization’s property (e.g., builds a shed or extends their lawn) or otherwise uses the land without permission? Sometimes immedia...

Overview of Pennsylvania’s Recreational Use of Land and Water Act
A two-page review of the landowner protections provided by the Act regarding claims of personal injury or property loss by recreational users of their land. (PALTA's "Guide to Pennsylvania’s Recrea...